Film Appreciation 2015: Lecture 25: New Hollywood Cinema: Part 2

Film Appreciation 2015: Lecture 25: New Hollywood Cinema: Part 2


good morning so um we have been talking about
the new hollywood movement and the important name associated with it in a in a last class
we talked about various important factors that influence the growth and spread of this
very important movement of new hollywood ah according to many critics and film makes with
this was the best time hollywood cinema ever had or even world cinema ever had this was
the calumniation of all the great movements that have been taking place um in europe in
japan and in other parts of asia and in new in the new hollywood movement this was the
calumniation the peek of the various experiments by way of themes and techniques taking place
so um ah we have been talking about the various important names and you might recall the termed
about um bbs ah and the the production company that had produce a number of experimental
and awaga this films we also talked about the decline and fall of the studio system
and also they start system which existed which was celebrated for while at least in hollywood
ah we must also note that this was the period when great cinema was made throughout the
worlds so poland czechoslovakia japans sweden and latin america all these names all these
country where producing very significant works of cinema the keep layers of course were ingmar
bergman akira kurosawa michelangelo antonioni and federico fellini ah apart from all this
british cinema was also quite in influence on the american new wave we have already talked
about the british new wave cinema and ones important film of that period was alfie now
alfie made in nineteen sixty six is with michael caine playing the title role in alfie who
is the charming role he is good looking and he knows how to fordyce women women he is
also from the working class so we have been talking about cinema representing the working
class young men ah in brtitten um when we talked about british new wave cinema the alfie
is immoral that at the end terms of the at damaged he inflict is more on himself and
low less on the women he uses and disposes this was the sixty stake on feminism do alfie
wasnt the first british representation or port real of male behavior the sixtys had
also seen ah you might recall films such as look back in anger saturday night and sunday
morning a kind of loving and billy liar so we have talked about these films at length
and we where discuss discussing british new wave cinema in spite of this cames alfie is
remarkable for ah his port real of nastiness immorality alfie was recently remade with
jude lopez according to many film experts was the very watered down ton down virgin
of the original alfie so here is the scene from alfie watch it watch it for ah ah the
heros characterization and also for the technique braking the fourth wall you must have notice
that how ummichael caines character constantly talks to the camera this is known as braking
the fourth wall this was introduced to ah rather or rather then using the word introduce
i have would say it was quite perfected by john livo goddard in brake less and later
on ah odi helen is made this technique quite his home now indeed when the studios collapse
the door where wide open and people with fresh ideas could just walking and even who had
some experience ah making a short film or training from a film school head big chances
of making it ah big and successful in hollywood produces we are now ready to take risks way
because the new that the old idea and and olds methods where not working any more this
was ah now um what was is special about this kind of cinema ah new hollywood cinema one
important thing by way of plot was that the heros were not investigating a big case so
it was no longer the kind of an great detective ok charismatic detective so there was nothing
to investigate there were new women to learn ok so that that ah the essential good man
and good women that kind of era was more or less over there were no goals and more importantly
the affirmative consequential module you know cause an effect module was replaced by openhandedness
new wave cinema was also marked by ah streak of social defines and we give as characters
and as far as heros were concern there was a shift from um a classic mood where heros
were morally motivate now the new way hero was no longer morally motivated confider for
example the heros of easy rider and the hero the hero of five easy pieces ok so they were
defiantly not the heroic heros ok they were the drifters the the misfits people who would
not take responsibilities for direction and that was the period so they capture the chief
guest of that iraq so that was the first wave and then hollywood enter its second new wave
and it was another um greater period for american cinema this was the time when we got films
such as a clockwork orange klute the last detail paper moon they axises american graffiti
the conversation the godfather natural carry any hall and the star wars now one of the
key names associated with the second wave hollywood was francis ford coppola coppala
attended film school at ucla tried to the godfather coppala had made here a big boy
now finians rainbow and rain people which was a road movie one of the four runners of
front runners of the new hollywood cinema he um ah came into the live light when he
won an oscar for the screen play for flecton which is a warm movie which relised in nineteen
seventy as far as ah the godfather was concern he were not interested in a big budget production
and also adaptation it was based on a mario puzo um puzos novel per seller or per section
and he wasnt impressed at all rather he considered himself an artist he was into new wave and
felly new like most um others of his generation his ambition was that of building of zotrobe
that is an alternative studio he always taught bake and talk bake now coming to the godfather
when eventually coppala agree to um direct the film um he try to bring about several
changes and um one big change was by way of screen play where he tried to cut down the
flag and decided to stick to the character of the godfather and his immediate family
so in the godfather and coppalas godfather we are introduced to vito corleone the don
has played by the magnisense marlon brando ah dons family in particularly michel collon
ah as played by al pacino and perhaps some of few might be aware that coppala had to
put up a real fight to get al pacino for that role because the studio is particularly robert
havens the producer he they were keen on cast in someone who is already established someone
like robert redford but al pacino ah al pacino was not the first choice not a very popular
choice but coppala decided to speak to him and of course we all know the results so we
are introduce to ah michael corleone who refuses to become a gangster he is an army man and
we first see him wearing his um ah army uniform as he enters with his wastige girlfriend as
played by kitten in the memorable open opening sequence the don needs people from his community
and you might if you have seen the movie you wold recall that there is a star contrast
between the lighting of the interiors and exteriors the studio was also not in favor
of the casting of alan brando but then copalla wanted brondo at any cost and brando went
through a great physical transformation he stuffed up his cheeks with cotton its a cotton
he stuffed his cheeks with cotton and he used the certain in characteristic draw ah that
we are by now all familiar with marlon brando gives the godfathers people talk and his voice
so brando wents through great deal of preparation for that kind this role because he he will
he also wanted to be a part of this film but he had go to the screen test and so did the
rest of the cast and most of them from the new york method school of acting now ah for
instance james caan diane keaton al pacino and robert robert duvall so brando was one
of the was the only big star on the sets when the movie stud now in the memorable opening
sequence the don needs several people from his community as you all remember it opens
in the dark interiors of the dons study where he is trying to help someone in trouble at
the same time in the all have outside his daughter conis marriage ceremony is in progress
and you might recall how what a stark contrast there is between the lightnings of the two
sequences so the dark clostrofer big world of godfather uh when he plays the part of
his part of don and when he family-men he is something else all together the the contrast
is well brought out through ah the camera effects the cinematography and the direction
then the characters as you know in the godfather they are not conventionally good or bad rather
a strong sense of moral ambiguity per weights throughout ah the key theme of the film is
individuals conflict with himself and the society he lives in thus raising the questions
of guilt responsibility and loyalty as you might have seen in al pachino that is michael
corleones character he start of a something else and ends of becoming something else all
together also we remember it is a world of authoritarian patriark a women do not have
much of a say in this world we dont even know the name of the godfathers wife the godfather
is also remember for its atmosphere and ambiance aft roll to recreate the forties ment organizing
the period cast its restaurants you might recall famous restaurants seen when michael
corleone guns down a corrupt cop his very first murder and the restaurant is recreated
ah in a mimic the forties the clothes the cars and the streets all these are pain stick
new painstakingly ah develop ah the film was fit ah photograph by gordon willis um and
much of the film is short in closed spaces and dark shutter rooms giving a feeling of
clostofer big world of the godfather or or don coeleone the memorable lines we all know
and ah the dialogues have become a part of a collective contentiousness i will make him
an offer he cant refuse i believe in america thats my family can not me dont ever take
sides agains the family and one with ah an a biding universal wisdom the man comes to
you to setup a meeting guides the theater here is a scene the opening scene from the
godfather watch it you might have recall ah you might have notice how dark and cost claustrophobic
the entire scene is and also of course the opening line i believe in america the godfather
at some level is also an indictment of the great american dream the godfather is a trilogy
ah there is a gap of two years between the first and the second godfather where the two
great method actors where brought together all though they never come face to face robert
de niro who plays the you vito and al pachino who is who now assumes the mental of ah the
don he is don corleone now michael is now don at the end of the second part of the film
we find michael sitting alone in a chair in his alone and the rotivly solve evident on
his face which embodies also the corruption the dike of the american story the success
story and also the down fall of that disillusionment with the american dream as well for more about
the seventies and the making of the godfather i suggest you read robert evans the kid stays
in the picture its a wonderful film its a documentary as well as a book the kids stays
in the picture by robert evans copallas next movie was ah an ambitious-vent um i am talking
not about the conversation but about a apocalypse now the loosely based on joseph conrads heart
of darkness the films dark heart it tale is unsurpassed as it follows and undercover u
s army ah officer as played by martin sheen sent from saigon we attempt to assassinate
a park raises special forces kernel as played by marlon brando who has flipped and set him
self up in his own native kingdom deep in the cambodian rainforest now apocalypse now
was a bloated epic he it went over budget mainly because of coppolas ah up session with
perfection it he tried to give it in extremely dull you can so realistic treatment observe
for instance we opening shorts with um martin sheen an an any his drug induce state capolla
was very clear what he wanted and what he want how he wanted apocalypse now to look
like the general will look sike a florescent blue yellows and greens the war is essentially
a los angeles export like acid rock that was what he wanted to capture on screen here is
a scene with robert duvall i love the smell of in the morning famous scene from apocalypse
now please watch it romans roman polanski is a chaina town is another seminal film of
this period staring jack nicholson um the great director john huston faye dunaway and
it was produced by robert hevans it is now memorable for a several lines but um most
importantly forget it jake is chaina town it is the thats the tag line thus the moral
of the story it was um one of the first neonova and revisits the classic nova of the forties
basically the theme deals with the land grabbing in california set during the thirties and
the forties here is the scene from china town please watch it martin scorsese is yet another
great ah director of that period along with copolla brian de palma and woody allen he
is one of the most influential directors of that period with a still making very interesting
films scorsese was born in little italy new york in nineteen forty two and studied at
nyu where he also taught films for a short while ah it is a presence of religion a key
element of a scorsese signature that sets in a part he was basically turned of by church
dogma and remain under that still he remain under the spell of catholic ritual and iconography
along with copolla and ah woody allen he is the most significant name at to associated
with the new wave hollywood his influences included the cinema of in ma bag man and films
such as allen renez hiroshima mon amour on the water front and east of eden both by elia
kazan joint last year at mario bomb and the misfits he i utilize directors as worried
john ford john huston um howard hawks federico fellini trufo doodad rane antonini rossellini
and michael powell his other influences include the ah include films such as ah the searches
there at shoes citizen kane and four hundred blows he is a keens in a film ah and he often
discusses films you can watch a a number of his interviews and also the documentaries
that he has been associated with documentaries on cinema most importantly ah some one title
person personal journey with martin scorsese which is history on the great cinema the great
classic of his study is um his first well known film is whos that knocking at my door
staring have kettle which is an essentially um very personal film mean streets his major
his first major success explode the doctrines of the catholic sect did believed in the idea
of guilt and being annually he poses the question in the film can you really be a saint in this
day in the spring of nineteen seventy three scorsese budget did not allow to shoot an
everything in new york as he wanted to the interiors of mean streets where shoot in los
angeles and the crew had only a week to do the exteriors in the sit streets of little
italy where he grow up the residents took objection at the title means streets because
they dint like the title ah and they felt it refer to there streets a deeply personal
coming of each film means streets was noted for its rough documentary quality and also
its philosophy embodied in charlies convection charlie as played by harvey keitel with comes
from action in this street and not in the church here is ah the opening shoot from means
street and watch it for the um home video effect and the documentary like fuel on the
scorsese ah extremely significant film is taxi driver which followed mean streets pool
shredder the stream write a base travel bikkel that is played robert de niro on the un named
man from notes from the under ground traverse is state of sedo mesoshiam schizophrenia panorama
are in this code by the absence of domestic life of any kind lack of connection with fellow
ah cab drivers and the constant voice over that tells us what is in his head that fails
to get communicated ah we have already done in one of our previous lectures are clipping
from taxi driver and the closeup shot of robodian rose eyes and the opening scene so here you
should recall that that he constantly talks to himself by way of wise over but he is one
of the most in communicative characters or controversial at the time of its relies taxi
driver is today regarded as a classic for his treatment of alienation urban malay and
exploration of dark area human cycle now ah scorsese some the beginning of his carrier
he had mad his passion for world cinema obvious over the years his love of cinema has taken
the form of constant concern to preserve and transmit um his inheritance in nineteen seventy
nine he started sensitizing the film industry about the dangers to which american films
shot in colors since a nineteen fifty was expose the east men process which had replace
technical quickly d grades both as negatives and as projection copies scorsese conducted
a successful campaign for the preservation of these films and establish good relations
with eastman kodak is scorsese is also collector of cinema at first he accumulate a thousands
of video cassettes employing in assistant to record and classify this collection which
was suddenly enlarge by the appearance of by the appearance cable tv we move on to talk
about the next great film maker of this period woody allen the woody allen ah is also again
like a polo constantly associated with golden willows the cinematographer who passed the
very simply um his carrier took of with any hall and um he his association with golden
willows also started with any hall together they collaborated on eight films together
and they have created two visual master pieces madhat and selic um woody allen cinema is
also notable for the use of its narrative one of the best example for innovative narrative
with any holic and the techniques that he uses in the films include braking the fourth
wall ah mixing the past and presents ah characters speaking in the sights to the camera or complete
strangers in the film using subtitles that contradict the action and also some occasional
use of animation braking the fourth wall is the very common device as we are already seen
in alphie and before that we know joy lio godad and ah this is one of the major contradictions
of woody allen the narrative of was of course his films are brilliantly acted also and most
of the actors who work with woody allen the end of getting the highest recognition for
their actors ah i would also like to mention the works of alan j. pakula who is remarkable
for his political kind of cinema so ah one major film is klute which was made in nineteen
seventy one parallax view staring warning bt nineteen seventy four all the presidents
men which is based on ah nonfiction in nineteen seventy six ah his later works include presumed
innocent and the pelican brief is staring julia roberts pakulas political trailers for
remarkable for his skillful characterization and a paranoid sense of conspiracy ah in the
nourish klute again which is the neo nova the detective starts a romantic relationship
with a call girl as played by james farmer who is the killers the mysteries killers next
probable victim in all the presidents men he uses the docudrama style to uncover the
water gate scandal that took place during president nixons time in parallax view pakula
uses extract in measures of large spaces with giddy heights in order to capture the scenes
of para-no here is scene amonta damonta scene from parallax v watch it i have been talking
about the great directors but i have ah no discussion of the second new wave can um we
complete without a mention of great actors of this time this is the time when we ah when
we had a greatest actors of all time and they are associated is something called a method
acting the method is full of acting this is the time when new waves of film making made
it necessary to ah have new are approaches towards acting now um according orson welles
he says i am always making fun of the method but i use a lot of things that are taking
from its a such is the impact and influence of a method the climax this is school of acting
were the russian theater actor um stanislavski and this was known as the stanislavskian system
which held that an actors main responsibility was to be believed is stanislavski first employed
methods such of emotional memory the method believed in preparing for a role that involve
fear the for example the actor must remember something frightening in attempt to at the
part in the emotionally space of that fear they wants in delivers the stanislavski system
became popular as the method first made ah ah popular by the group theater in new york
city in the nineteen thirties in the u s and some the stellar names associated with lois
trzeba ah along with a stella adler and uta hagen they were the most well known proponents
of the approach the method was a clear brakes from previous nodes of acting that held that
the actors job was to become the character and leave their own emotions behind the thiation
of physical entries into these emotionally states believing that the reputation of certain
acts and exercises could brinch the gap between life and of by stage was one of the key features
of the method the new group of actors included names such as robert de niro al pachino jake
michaelson dustin hoffman fadanovi jin hackman harvey keitel robert duvall jane fonda and
also meryl streep here is a scene from dog day afternoon starting al pachino and watch
this scene other great films and film makers of this
period include peter bogdanovich ah whos most memorable film is the last picture show the
films tag line said it all anarene texas nineteen fifty one nothing much is change a scene takes
place outside ah town at the tank upon that briefly brakes the monotony of the flat texas
theory the protoganism takes his friend fishing there even though there is nothing in the
tank of titles but sam however doesnt like fish doesnt like to clean them doesnt like
to smell them he goes fishing for the scenery the film focuses on the desserts dry lives
desperation in loneliness of the people in small town um the film introduced star such
as jay bridges and cybill shepherd to cinema and was photographed in beautiful black and
white almost like in hacking back to those old a times william friedkins the french connection
even other monumental films of that time its a fact based thriller about the drug ring
busted up by the nypd and it is adopted from a novel by robert warr fit can followed a
traditional linear narative and also inserted a scene following the success of violet ah
staring steve mcqueen the french connection expressed his admiration for the french masters
fried can here also seen the film ah the greek film z um which is ah film by ah directed
by costa gavras and he wanted to you make a political trailer in documentary using a
documentary technique thus like z so he captured street reality and gave the film loose hen
held documentary like he was also influence by drvolik and wages of fear both by the french
master and clues of sikkim had grownup on films such as citizen kane psycho and and
like most of the movie of hollywood directors had might european films such as film glow
up juliet of the aspirates lagova efini and a hard days night according to william friedkin
the plotted film is on the way out and is no longer of interest were serious director
and new theater experience is under thirty and largely interested in abstract experience
the idea is that newer people the younger people want newer experience of the newer
kind of cinema which distinct newer kind of cinematic language friedkin is also known
for his horror the exorcist which um was motivated by ah friedkins enemy of ah coppola and the
minventory success of the godfather he said that a good part of my motivation was to make
a better film then francais the noval on which the exorcist based on seemed unfilmable and
um thing such as scene such as levitations and poltergeist and positions where difficult
to show on screen it is also surrounded by controversies that he made it and exorcist
today a horror classic john luke is also another important filmmaker of that time he came into
the lamlite with a film thx set in the twenty fifth century lukes realize that every film
in the last ten years had pointed out how terrible be are how wrong we were in vietnam
how we have rule in the world i wanted to preserve what a set in generation of americans
thought being a teenager was really about from nineteen forty five to nineteen sixty
two his response was thus american graffiti in nineteen seventy three which is set in
the fifties and is a nostalgic take on americas past it portraits teenage rights of passages
in a small town in the nineteen fifties and a stars harrison ford ron howard and richard
dreyfuss the plot is very frenzy to a school boys ready to fly out of there is small town
home the film maps the universal fear of leaving the warm and known for something cold unknown
another great an landmark film of the period is saturday night fever directed by john badham
its ah it also is rights of passage film and reverse the musicals of classic hollywood
period ah john travoltas character tony monaro is a working class italian american from brooklyn
but on saturday nights he is the king of the disco he dresses up and goes to the discotheque
two thousand one odyssey the film had music and it was an an normasly successful music
by bgs and it also is credited for reinventing mens fashion it also gave birth to the birth
of the it also gave birth to the um modern dance film such as greece footloose dirty
dancing and its several imitations when of the most successful period ah films of this
period was stiffness steel bugs jos this is about a killer shark in a beach resort town
and it follows a traditional narrative and its ah theme is a re-clear good versus evil
good represented by the heros who fight the killer shark it is what mosquitoes call a
simplistic entertainment and steel bugs and lukes together are credited for taking cinema
back also remember close and countas of the third kind which his a nineteen seventy seven
film and steel bug is coated as i wanted to take a childs point of view the uneducated
innocence that allows a person to take this kind of quantum jump we have to also consider
the father figure in lukas in his steel bug most families are fatherless and of the absence
father longing for and the kids grow up longing for the absence dad critics have read this
as an nostalgia for authority the plots in both lukas and steel bug they are set emotion
by the moral and emotional vacuum at the center of the home result by father surrogates um
one director whos film ah sought of is stands alone in this period is michael he may knows
the dear hunt this was a period when vietnam in the war with america became a frequently
occurring theme in hollywood cinema some of these films are coming home by hal ashby the
boys in company seed by cindy fury go tell the spartans by tadpole and coppola were also
shooting apocalypse now in philippines the dear hunter is above the working class russian
american from pennsylvania the film stars with starts with two richuals the marriage
of his steel and just slays a through back to the extended wedding sequence ah of the
godfather and dear hunngtry huntingtree before protagonist and list in the vietnam war the
film then cuts to write into the middle of the war with the americans ah business of
wars forced to play russian roulette and depicts the groove some realities of war so one of
the greatest films of this period michael ciminos carrier did not exactly take of the
ways scorsese cappola brandy pama and woodly allens did that he has made one great film
of that period and it is defiantly over film worth watching the new hollywood period that
start at till the late seventies and it has left us the some of the most innovative films
ever made um i like to draw your attention to the reading list here ah christopher guarantee
american counter culture godfrey hodgsons america in a time charles perry the height
eshbare peter biskind easy raiders ragging bulls and david thomson and christys scorsese
on scorsese so these are some of the femoral books that you can refer to thank you very
much

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