How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.


Is there a border we will never cross? Are there places we will never reach,
no matter how hard we try? Turns out there are. Even with science fiction technology,
we are trapped in our pocket of the Universe. How can that be?
And, how far can we go? We live in a quiet arm of the Milky Way;
A spiral galaxy of average size, – about 100,000 light years across – consisting of billions of stars, gas clouds,
dark matter, black holes, neutron stars, and planets, with a supermassive
black hole in the galactic centre.>From afar, our galaxy seems dense, but
in reality, it consists, mostly, of empty space. With our current technology, sending a human
to the closest star, would take thousands of years. So, our galaxy is pretty big. The Milky Way is not alone, though. Along with the Andromeda galaxy,
and more than fifty dwarf galaxies, it’s a part of “The Local Group”; a region of space about ten million light years
in diameter. It is one of the hundreds of galaxy groups in
the “Laniakea Supercluster”, which, itself is only one of millions
of superclusters, that make up the observable universe. Now, let’s assume, for a moment, that
we have a glorious future; humanity becomes a type three civilisation, does not get wiped out by aliens, and develops interstellar travel based on
our current understanding of physics. In this best case scenario,
how far could we possibly go? Well; the local group. It’s the biggest structure that humanity
will ever be a part of. While it’s certainly huge, the local group
accounts for only 0.00000000001 % of the observable universe. Let this number sink in for a moment. We are limited to a hundred billionth of
a percent of the observable universe. The simple fact that there is actually
a limit for us, and that there is so much universe that we will never
be able to touch, is kind of frightening. Why can’t we go further? Well, it all has to do with
the nature of nothing. Nothing, or empty space, isn’t empty
but has energy intrinsic to itself; so-called “quantum fluctuations”. On the smaller scale, there is
constant action, particles and antiparticles appearing and annihilating themselves. You can imagine this quantum vacuum as
a bubbling part: with denser, and less dense regions. Now, let’s go back 13.8 billion years
when the fabric of space consisted of nothing at all. Right after the big bang, in an event known
as cosmic inflation, the observable universe expanded from the size of a marble to
trillions of kilometres, in fractions of a second. This sudden stretching of the universe was
so fast and extreme, that all those quantum fluctuations were
stretched as well, and subatomic distances became
galactic distances, with dense and less dense regions. After inflation, gravity began to pull
everything back together. At the largest scale, the expansion was
too quick and powerful to overcome but in smaller scales,
gravity emerged victorious. So, over time, the denser regions,
or pockets, of the universe, grew into groups of galaxies, like the one
we live in today. Only stuff inside our pocket – The Local Group –
is bound to us gravitationally. But wait, what is the problem then? Why can’t we travel from our pocket,
to the next one? Here, dark energy makes everything complicated. About six billion years ago,
dark energy took over. It’s basically an invisible force or effect,
that causes, and speeds up the expansion of the universe. We don’t know why, or what dark energy is,
but we can observe its effect clearly. In the early universe, there were larger,
cold spots around the local group, that grew into clusters with thousands
of galaxies. We are surrounded by a lot of stuff,
but none of those structures and galaxies outside of the local group are gravitationally
bound to us. So the more the universe expands,
the larger the distance between us and other gravitational pockets becomes. Over time, dark energy will push the rest
of the universe away from us, causing all the other clusters, galaxies, and
groups to eventually become unreachable. The next galaxy group is already millions
of light years away, but all of them are moving away from us,
at speeds we can’t, ever, hope to match. We could leave the local group, and then
fly through intergalactic space, into the darkness, but we would never
arrive anywhere. While we will become more and more stranded,
the local group will become more tightly bound, and merge together to form one giant elliptical galaxy,
with the unoriginal name “Milkdromeda” in a few billion years. But it becomes even more depressing: at some point, the galaxies outside
the local group, will be so far away, that they will be too faint to detect, and the few
photons that do make it to us, will be shifted to such long wavelengths,
that they will be undetectable. Once this happens, no information outside
of the local group will be able to reach us. The universe will recede from view. It will appear to be dark and empty
in all directions, forever. A being born in the far future in
Milkdromeda, will think there is nothing but its own
galaxy in the entire universe. When they look far into empty space, they
will only see more emptiness and darkness; they won’t be able to see the
cosmic background radiation, and they won’t be able to learn about
the Big Bang. They will have no way of knowing
what we know today; the nature of the expanding universe,
where it began, and how it will end. They will think the universe is static and eternal. Milkdromeda will be an island in the darkness,
slowly getting darker and darker. But still, with its trillions of stars,
the local group is certainly large enough for humanity. After all, we still haven’t figured out
how to leave our solar system, and we have billions of years
to explore our galaxy. We have the incredible luck to exist at
the perfect moment in time to see, not only our future but also our
most distant past. As isolated and remote as the local group is,
we can perceive the entire universe, grand and spectacular as it is right now. This video was sponsored by SquareSpace.com/nutshell Do you feel isolated in a humongous universe? Why not set up a website or blog
and share your thoughts with other humanoids around you? Squarespace lets you do that
with easy-to-understand tools very quickly and without any knowledge of web design. You can also use the code “NUTSHELL” to save
10 % and support Kurzgesagt in making more videoes about our place
in the universe. Thanks so much for the help with the video
to Ethan Siegel. Follow his astronomy blog here. You can support us directly at Patreon
or get Kurzgesagt merch here. It really helps. It is awesome that you watched this far,
so we have made a playlist for you about more universe stuff. Subtitles made by Sebastian Winkelmann Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Only registered users can comment.

  1. This sounds like an epic fantasy.
    'There was once a time when the galaxies shared light between them,
    But a day came when Dark Energy tore them apart.
    In the destruction that followed, two star crossed lovers, Milky Way and Andromeda, gave birth to a single child, Milkdromeda.
    That galaxy only knew stories about the rest of the universe, as Dark Energy divided them forever.
    But in that pocket of light, life grew.'

  2. How do we know that the rate of expansion of our universe is preventing us from seeing other universes created by other big bangs?

  3. But there's no way of knowing what sort of futuristic technology will exist in the far future so for all we know, it could very well be possible at some point to travel to other superclusters of galaxies eventually plus at least a few super advanced alien races may already have that technology.

    Of course, we'll all have long since turned to dust and bones by then and probably Humanity as we know it will be long gone by then but perhaps our distant descendants will get access to the tech at some point.

  4. They fail to mention that most of this is actually theoretical, we have limited information. If you were to take a hard into some of these things, and what process scientists have taken to reach certain conclusion you would cringe.

  5. What if it has been happening for billions or trillions of years and what we see now its just a part of an already virtually unreachable and un observable universe

  6. The idea of a wormhole negates the entire idea of a limit of human expansion. If we figure out how to control wormholes we can travel to different galaxies faster than the speed of light.

  7. “Even with science fiction technology, we are tapped in our pocket of the universe.”
    TARDIS: Am I joke to you…?

  8. so if a being born in the far future will never know about the big bang, who's to say that we have not already passed the point where we will never find out what happened before the big bang, and therefore just scientifically concluded the big bang was the first and only thing that happened in our universe

  9. Humanity has no limits if we try hard enough we could do almost anything Galactic Conquest just a hop and a skip away if everyone got along it might make it a whole lot faster though

  10. I feel like we dont have to be scared of aliens if they exist and whether they are going to invade as or not. It seems to be that we are going to be the aliens with the knowledge to overcome other nonhuman civilizations

  11. What if we use the wormhole concept here….?

    I mean to reach other far places……..
    Then, I think it would be much easier…….

  12. i always think about how would we know if we didn’t enter a whole new universe or dimension by going straight as far as possible, then i start to think of all the microscopic bacteria in our own world… what if we, the stars and planets were something else’s microscopic organisms?

  13. I have a question, what if the universe stops expanding one day. What if Gravity becomes dominant over dark energy? Gravity will start pulling things together, then I think all these boundaries are erased. Ofcourse that also means that the universe is dying …

  14. Actually we do not "see the universe as it is", but the light we perceive was emmited hundreds, thousands, or millions of years ago and it just arrived from very distant parts of the universe.

  15. Almost always I can rely on this channel to show all aspects of concepts. In this case, they didn't.

    We already known faster than light travel is theoretically possible by bending space-time.

    Einstein theorized wormholes which can also possibly allow us to transcend the local group.

    And lastly, this video relies heavily on the assumption that our current understanding of physics is all true. The number of times we've flip-flopped between thinking the universe was expanding vs contacting is astounding – we currently know less than the percentage of the universe that this video said humanity can explore lol.

    Had to dislike.

  16. (KJV)(Hebrews 9:27) And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment

    (KJV)(Revelation 21:8) But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers,
    and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
    (KJV)(Mark 9:44) Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched'

  17. (KJV)(Psalms 14:1) To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. The fool hath said in his heart, There

    is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.
    (KJV)(Job 4:17) Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his maker?
    (KJV)(Romans 6:23) For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord'

  18. The question is what about have we missed already we could have missed events in the universe that would describe how it was formed by maybe less than 1 million years

  19. Hey, hey, hey, there are wormholes, so we can visit any place in the universe! We just need to discover negative mass.
    1) Master negative mass technologies
    2) Open wormhole
    3) Pass through without annihilating yourself
    4) …
    5) Profit!

  20. Man….that's why I fucken hate astrology and the science of the universe…..
    The only ever true answer is so fucken depressing. I know I won't even experience the agonizing expansion or shrinking of the universe, the explosion of the sun ir even an alien invasion….but god damn….this is fucken sad thinking my descendants will have to deal with it.

  21. The universe expands at the speed of light. If we can travel faster than the speed of light, then we can catch up to what is moving away from us

  22. so our understanding of the Universe will return to what it was before Edwin hubble. Static and eternal, and only the milky way

  23. Could this be the answer to the Fermi paradox then (Where are the aliens)? As the can’t ever reach us because of the universe expanding quicker than the speed of light

  24. "We can perceive the entire universe, grand and spectaular, as it is right now". Well no, not really, that's the problem with the speed of light…

  25. I guess Milkdromeda will have no books, and no Internet websites that record data. And all past data will be erased.

  26. Why is that every video about science there is uneducated,ignorant and dumb religious people trying to convert other people to their religion here?
    You won't achieve nothing here pals. I'm grateful that I live in a free and secular country, even with all it's problems.
    If god even exists, Numbers are his language. The big bang,evolution and al the things that science discovered ARE REAL whether you like it or not.

  27. Imagine with me for a moment that an event like this has already happened — like we’re the ones in the future who “cannot possibly know what it was like” before — and a bunch of Kurzgesagt watching bird children have all died off long ago.

  28. So the question is, how far or wide or tall or big is space? It can go on for miles, light years, light decades, or just a few centimeters. But if we are able to go past everything will there be more stars, planets, space…? Will everything be one color of black or white? Will it be an unknown color that humanity cannot see? Will we be able to see anything? And what if we die? There are religions that believe in a place beyond our lives. And yet no one knows what that is. Or even where it is. What will happen when we die? Will our minds be transferred into another vacuum of space where it would look like heaven/hell? Will there be a greater being or greater creature that can create or destroy worlds? Will it just be darkness? Will are minds turn off and, like a computer, not be able to do anything, sense anything, know anything? Do we have the power to even make a dent of impact on anything? Is there even a greater being? What if we are the greatest beings but we can only make up of what we learned from our Daily lives? We have the power to create or destroy life. In ghost or zombie movies, can there actually be life that can be risen from the dead? How would we know? Are they really that scary? Would they actually want to eat us or devour our soul? Why would humans that once were also scared of being eaten by zombies also eat humans? If somehow we did know everything and could decide what to do to make everything right or wrong, how would we know on that? We could know all the knowledge in every single thing out there and yet, we wouldn’t know what is right or wrong. Being biased is a flaw for knowledge. Could this be how we live based on? People thinking what will make us happy or sad or mad based on biased actions? I could have a kid and give him/her a video game because that’s what I liked and that’s gonna imprint or he/she will disagree and choose his/her own biased path only to lead up to them having a kid and doing the same thing. We have been doing this for millions of years. What if there wasn’t a “big bang” and there was many earths before us that had different or the same lives we have today or even better/worse lives? How would we know? And what if there was a greater being that doesn’t even know we exist? Like you accidentally dropped a seed from your trail mix and years later became a beautiful sun flower? We wouldn’t know because it happened naturally. We could have made life without even knowing it. Back onto space. We are a piece of dust or lint hair in a huge beach of sand rocks and kids that are able to forge great things with the sand to make little castles while we had humans on earth are to just float away like the dust we are. We’re not even sand that’s how small we are. And if we can’t see what’s past us then what can we see in us or on us? What is truly the smallest thing? It can’t be a small ball connected to more small balls to make an element. What is a proton made of? What is the ingredients of a proton made out of? There are endless possibilities. Examples: what is the true smallest thing? What is the biggest thing? What is beyond our line of sight or knowledge? What will happen when we die? Is there an end? Will there be more? What is time? Is it possible to even look at time? Speaking of time. Humans made up time. It’s not something that everywhere beyond our galaxy has. When we say back in time or in the future, we can’t go back in time because that never happened. We don’t know what’s in the future because it never happened. When we talk about the past we think of that thing Tom said to Jim that made everyone laugh but that happened once and will never happen again. If we make a time machine and see what Tom said then it would not work because time is not a universal thing. We may never know what Tom said but for the people who were there then they have it in their memories. If we make a time machine outside of our solar system will it work? No because there is no way to tell time. And there is no time to go back to. Space is outside our limit. Space is not a physical thing to touch or feel. Space cannot be altered or changed. We can fill it but there is nothing else we can do but that. Can we see space? We don’t know that answer. People can say yes or no but like I said before, humans are biased and can think of explanations without actual reason. What if we can see space but it’s just black. If we couldn’t see space would it still be black or will it be another color that we cannot see. Scientists discovered a new color not to long ago where they mix two colors that never had a mix before and asked different people like color blind and non color blind people what they saw. Because we can’t blame being biased for everything we will trust what these people saw. The non color blind people saw nothing just the two colors mixed weirdly, but the color blind people saw a new color which cannot be described. It is truly a bizarre thing to think about but we may never know or some magic book called the Enchiridion or a crystal ball will tell us everything. Sorry I got existential there. Just my thoughts. Maybe I should start my own YouTube channel like this one? Another unanswered question from the universe. This took like 2 hours to make cuz its was 10 now it’s almost 12 at night. Thanks if you read through it. K imma go to sleep now. Bye

  29. So the question is, how far or wide or tall or big is space? It can go on for miles, light years, light decades, or just a few centimeters. But if we are able to go past everything will there be more stars, planets, space…? Will everything be one color of black or white? Will it be an unknown color that humanity cannot see? Will we be able to see anything? And what if we die? There are religions that believe in a place beyond our lives. And yet no one knows what that is. Or even where it is. What will happen when we die? Will our minds be transferred into another vacuum of space where it would look like heaven/hell? Will there be a greater being or greater creature that can create or destroy worlds? Will it just be darkness? Will are minds turn off and, like a computer, not be able to do anything, sense anything, know anything? Do we have the power to even make a dent of impact on anything? Is there even a greater being? What if we are the greatest beings but we can only make up of what we learned from our Daily lives? We have the power to create or destroy life. In ghost or zombie movies, can there actually be life that can be risen from the dead? How would we know? Are they really that scary? Would they actually want to eat us or devour our soul? Why would humans that once were also scared of being eaten by zombies also eat humans? If somehow we did know everything and could decide what to do to make everything right or wrong, how would we know on that? We could know all the knowledge in every single thing out there and yet, we wouldn’t know what is right or wrong. Being biased is a flaw for knowledge. Could this be how we live based on? People thinking what will make us happy or sad or mad based on biased actions? I could have a kid and give him/her a video game because that’s what I liked and that’s gonna imprint or he/she will disagree and choose his/her own biased path only to lead up to them having a kid and doing the same thing. We have been doing this for millions of years. What if there wasn’t a “big bang” and there was many earths before us that had different or the same lives we have today or even better/worse lives? How would we know? And what if there was a greater being that doesn’t even know we exist? Like you accidentally dropped a seed from your trail mix and years later became a beautiful sun flower? We wouldn’t know because it happened naturally. We could have made life without even knowing it. Back onto space. We are a piece of dust or lint hair in a huge beach of sand rocks and kids that are able to forge great things with the sand to make little castles while we had humans on earth are to just float away like the dust we are. We’re not even sand that’s how small we are. And if we can’t see what’s past us then what can we see in us or on us? What is truly the smallest thing? It can’t be a small ball connected to more small balls to make an element. What is a proton made of? What is the ingredients of a proton made out of? There are endless possibilities. Examples: what is the true smallest thing? What is the biggest thing? What is beyond our line of sight or knowledge? What will happen when we die? Is there an end? Will there be more? What is time? Is it possible to even look at time? Speaking of time. Humans made up time. It’s not something that everywhere beyond our galaxy has. When we say back in time or in the future, we can’t go back in time because that never happened. We don’t know what’s in the future because it never happened. When we talk about the past we think of that thing Tom said to Jim that made everyone laugh but that happened once and will never happen again. If we make a time machine and see what Tom said then it would not work because time is not a universal thing. We may never know what Tom said but for the people who were there then they have it in their memories. If we make a time machine outside of our solar system will it work? No because there is no way to tell time. And there is no time to go back to. Space is outside our limit. Space is not a physical thing to touch or feel. Space cannot be altered or changed. We can fill it but there is nothing else we can do but that. Can we see space? We don’t know that answer. People can say yes or no but like I said before, humans are biased and can think of explanations without actual reason. What if we can see space but it’s just black. If we couldn’t see space would it still be black or will it be another color that we cannot see. Scientists discovered a new color not to long ago where they mix two colors that never had a mix before and asked different people like color blind and non color blind people what they saw. Because we can’t blame being biased for everything we will trust what these people saw. The non color blind people saw nothing just the two colors mixed weirdly, but the color blind people saw a new color which cannot be described. It is truly a bizarre thing to think about but we may never know or some magic book called the Enchiridion or a crystal ball will tell us everything. Sorry I got existential there. Just my thoughts. Maybe I should start my own YouTube channel like this one? Another unanswered question from the universe. This took like 2 hours to make cuz its was 10 now it’s almost 12 at night. Thanks if you read through it. K imma go to sleep now. Bye

  30. How do we know we know of the entire universe, couldn't some of the galaxies already be far enough out that it's already undetectable

  31. a long time ago they prolly said wE wILL nEvEr mAke iT tOO sPaCe. so i dont think you can say we will never make it out side of our galaxy cuz you just dont know

  32. Or we just, ya know, travel through infinite dimensional space to the dimension where there's less expansion, then travel back once we're in the new pocket. Gotta think outside of the box here people

  33. Dark Energy is also going to push our ship . So we should be able to get the same advantages as other local group which are made up of matter like our ship is.

  34. If there was a world without division and are resources went in to technology we probably could travel to other systems before the darkness takes over

  35. Our local space is the only with this problem? Or the other local space will be alone too with to pass of time?

  36. What if there are other universes out there that have already faded away and we cant see them anymore!
    Maybe we're not lucky to exist in this seemingly perfect time and place, maybe it's just a random place.

  37. You know nothing, Professor Snow! We'll supercharge our spaceships and conquer all of the universe – powered by Trump's Clean Coal® engines!

  38. We are born in a time where we may be ignorant of other things, an alien kurzgesagt might say, "humans are not able to see all the civilizations that thrive around the universe and will likely not be able to do so, a scary thought, they can only look at the universe and wonder."

  39. Kurzgesagt: We have billions of years to explore the galaxy!

    Trump: Huh? Here. a nuke to end humanity.

    Kurzgesagt: F U

  40. What if our observable universe is just another pocket and we think this is it, but there are more observable universe sized pockets beyond ours we cannot detect?

  41. Just enjoying the ride of my life. Born and lived in a brief period of human existence where the perceived future of mankind is dismal at best. I believe at some point we will collectively kiss our assets good bye.

  42. I see some planets over there in dire need of democracy. They do have lots of oil, but that is a completely unrelated coincidence though… 🙄

  43. In the Grand scheme of time we are barely coming out of the caves and barely started studying science, if we manage to survive a million years from now shit even a 100,000 years we would have many more answers and ideas but also questions. To Humanity onward

  44. Wait, isn’t local groups bound together. Because superclusters make up the cosmic web don’t they? And the cosmic web is dense stuff that surround voids.

  45. So… but, if we started flying thru the void, wouldn't space expand while you were traveling, creating an increasing warp factor inherent in space itself?

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